software architecture

Types of coupling when integrating via the database

IntegrationDatabase or integration via database is a pattern best avoided. It is a pattern where multiple applications or services integrate via the database. In an extreme but unfortunately not so uncommon case, multiple applications share a table in the same database.


In this post, I would like to talk about the various types of coupling created when multiple applications integrate via the same database. It is highly encouraged that a service or application owns its data. When a service owns its data, it creates explicit contracts through APIs that are business-truthful as opposed to implicit contracts via database tables that are more implementation detail.

Here are the various types of coupling.

  • Schema coupling. The shared database schema has to accommodate the needs of all the applications accessing the database. This means getting buy-in from all the consumers when changing database schema. A particular result of schema coupling is when you end up with sparse tables, where certain columns are only used by an application or a subset of the applications. This adds to the cognitive load of the team building applications that are not using those columns.
  • Data coupling. The data semantics in the tables also have to aligned across all the different applications. This can get quite hairy over time since the data semantics are part embedded in the database and part in the applications. Very often, I have seen states of a process being stored in the database like “Started”, “Processing”, “Finished” and being interpreted differently by different applications. It becomes very hard to change these states as they create a ripple effect across all the applications using it. It also can be tricky to add new states.
  • Abstraction coupling. When systems from outside the domain access the database tables of an application, it creates an abstraction coupling where the abstraction the external systems are coupled to is more of an implementation detail rather than a business-truthful abstraction. For example, when customers are exposed the “raw” inventory from the database for a given store when what they really want is “available to sell” inventory for the store. Available to sell inventory factors in store demand, lost inventory, damaged inventory, et al. When exposing the raw inventory, the customers then have to access other tables or build other logic to get to the available to sell inventory. Thus, exposing a business-truthful abstraction as a service such as available to sell inventory hides the inventory complexity inside the service and provides a way for the service to evolve the implementation over time. Also, thinking about a system interface in a business-truthful way, makes the system more widely understood and reduces cognitive load for developers consuming the abstraction. Hence, it is best to separate the system interface from the underlying implementation.
  • Deployment coupling. As a direct result of schema and data coupling, database changes have to be coordinated with all the systems accessing the database. Database is an implementation detail of the system. Changing the database should not require any release coordination with its consumers as long as the system interface has not been changed.
  • Runtime coupling. When multiple applications access the same database it is hard to scale or performance test those applications in isolation. To replicate “production load” for an application, you would have to create activity in all the applications hitting the database to truly understand the deadlocks/race conditions in that application. In essence, it becomes very hard to commit to SLAs for an application as there is very little isolation between the traffic coming from different applications.

Thanks for reading! Comments/feedback welcome.

Programming, software architecture

You will make mistakes just don’t make the expensive ones!

I have a friend who is a pilot and someone asked him “Aren’t most of the controls on the airplane running on auto mode then why do you get paid so much?”. His answer was “Well, I don’t get paid for the 99% of the times when things go right, I get paid for the 1% when things go wrong and in that case I am the difference between life and death.” Sometimes, I like to view my job as a technology leader through that lens – getting paid to avoid the most expensive mistakes. Although thankfully most of the times, I am not responsible for making life and death decisions. 🙂

Now ideally, you would want to avoid all mistakes. But the matter of fact is, that we cannot avoid all mistakes because we lack necessary context, or the skill set or just bandwidth. So whats the next best thing? I like to categorize mistakes by the cost of fixing them. Here is how I categorize mistakes: multi million dollar, a million dollar or a sub-million dollar mistake. These “buckets” come from the cost of the mistakes I have made personally or experienced from my day job of building software, typically for large, enterprise clients.

Now the question is how do we categorize mistakes?

I haven’t spent enough time thinking about the heuristics for these buckets but I have some examples:

  • Multi million dollar mistake. Not arranging your software by business concepts would be a multi million dollar mistake. This is the type of mistake that doesn’t instantly hurt and is hard to detect. It dramatically limits the organization’s ability to evolve over time. I bet everyone is doing this wrong, some to a lesser degree than the others and its really important to be on top of this one. This is the one that the organization’s CTO should be actively looking at.
  • Million dollar mistake. Not having the right logic in the right layers of your application/service would be a million dollar mistake. For example, your domain logic is embedded in your database and now your processing cannot scale until you scale your database, which means buying more licenses for your database.
  • Sub-million dollar mistake. God classes would be an example of sub-million dollar mistake. This is where there most of your business features depend on one class in your code base. It is very expensive to add new business features or maintain existing ones.

The categorization of the mistakes provides the necessary focus on the ones you should be avoiding – the most expensive ones and the rest you can choose to defer or deal with at the “last reponsible moment”. Avoiding the multi million dollar mistakes takes careful planning.

Going back to our examples,when looking at a particular software, you should be focusing on if the software is arranged by the business concepts (where Domain Driven Design thinking can be a huge help), before you get too deep into the weeds of the code and solving for God classes. If you spend your time wisely avoiding the multi million dollar mistakes, you could still end up with some God classes but at least it won’t be as expensive to fix them.